in Black Metal, Text Mining

Middle-Earth Entity Recognition in Black Metal Lyrics

The influence of JRR Tolkien in black metal is pervasive, almost since its beginning. One of BM’s most (in)famous outfits, Burzum, took its name from a word invented by the Middle-Earth creator that signifies “darkness” in the Black Speech of Mordor. Other Norwegian acts such as Gorgoroth or Isengard adopted their names from notable Middle-Earth locations. Perhaps the best example is the Austrian duo Summoning, who have incorporated in their releases inumerous lyrical references (well, not inumerous, about 70 actually) to Tolkien’s works.

The references to Middle-Earth mythology abound in both lyrics and band monikers. Using a list of notable characters’ names and geographic locations as the basis for a named entity recognition task, I set out to find which are the most cited in the black metal data set.

With this list and a small Java NER script implemented for this task, I found 149 bands which have chosen a Middle-Earth location or entity for their name. Angmar is the most popular (6), closely followed by Mordor (5) and Sauron (5). With 4 occurrences each, there’s also Orthanc, Moria, Nargothrond, Carcharoth, Gorthaur and Morgoth.

As for actual lyrical references to these entities, I found a grand total of 736 of them. The ones that have at least two occurrences are depicted in the bubble chart below. It’s not surprising at all to find that the most common references (Mordor, Morgoth, Sauron, Moria, Saruman and Carcharoth) belong to malevolent characters, or dark and dangerous places, of the Tolkienesque lore. The “Black Gate” is also mentioned a lot, but it could have a meaning outside of the Middle-Earth mythology.


Bubble Chart built from Mike Bostock’s example